Web Version: MAGMA Newsletter October 2018 CONTACT   

Dear Reader,

Welcome to your October 2018 MAGMAacademy newsletter!

Today’s edition features an interesting article about the influence of cooling rates in cast iron alloys. Learn how the cooling rate influences the behavior of microstructures and properties.

After today’s article, you will find news for MAGMASOFT® users from the support section of our website. Benefit from the knowledge provided by the MAGMAtips, video tutorials and webinars for your daily work.

Of course, here you will find a schedule of all our training events, workshops and seminars.

Next month, the new schedule featuring all events for 2019 will be released. For details on our English-language events, please feel free to contact us.

We hope you enjoy reading this newsletter!

Your MAGMAacademy team 




...read more 



Laura Leineweber, M.Sc.
Malaika Heidenreich
Dipl.-Ing. Tristan Kotthoff

Phone: +49 241/88901-99
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October 2018

Influence of Local Cooling Rates on Microstructures and Properties of Cast Iron Alloys

Generally, the microstructures and, thus, the mechanical properties of cast iron alloys depend on

- the chemical composition,

- the state of nucleation and

- the local cooling rates.

Simulation models need to consider these three influencing parameters to be able to make reliable predictions.

The fraction of eutectic phase occurring at equilibrium for an alloy during solidification, can be described with the adjusted degree of saturation SR according to E. Piwowarsky (percentage of eutectic solidification/ total solidification) → (C-CE)/(CC-CE).

In the following example of an alloy with a carbon equivalent (CE) of 3.9 %, the resulting fraction of eutectic phase is 83 %.


Figure 1: Fraction of eutectic phase in the iron-carbon phase diagram

Thus, the fraction of primary phase (primary austenite) is 17 %.


Figure 2: Fraction of primary phase

The simulation, however, reveals substantial differences regarding the fraction of primary austenite, mainly caused by locally differing cooling rates. The theoretical value of 17 % is only reached in the hot spot.

The reason for this behavior is that the eutectic solidification begins at different points in time. In areas that cool down more quickly (thin walls, surfaces), supercooling below the eutectic temperature is greater than in the areas that cool down more slowly (hot spots, thick-walled areas). This is also shown in the corresponding cooling curves.


Figure 3: Simulated cooling curves

Due to the delayed onset of the eutectic solidification, however, the precipitation time of the primary phase and, thus, of the primary austenite is extended, which can be shown in the phase diagram.

Figure 4: Primary austenite in the phase diagram

Due to the delayed onset of the eutectic solidification, however, the precipitation time of the primary phase and, thus, of the primary austenite is extended, which can be shown in the phase diagram.

If you are interested in learning more about the simulation of cast iron, the influence of different production parameters and the methodological design of casting systems and production conditions using simulation, then book the seminar „Simulation of Cast Iron“ customized to your needs on-site in your company.




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In our wide spectrum of MAGMASOFT® trainings, you as a user learn how to... read more




In 2018, we offer several English-language user workshops... read more





Recently, MAGMAacademy has also started offering webinars for MAGMASOFT® users. We are happy to thus provide another platform for you to increase your knowledge around the use of casting process simulation.


Drop by the support section on our website. There you can find a new “Webinar” section, where you can watch recordings of past webinars or register for new webinars.


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