The erosion or material loss of the core box occurs due to the abrasion of the material, which is caused by continuous impact of sand grains under high speed on the core box surface. The extent to which erosion develops mainly depends on the following factors: impact conditions (sand velocity and impact angle), sand properties (density, sand grain shape and sand grain size) and material properties of the mold material (ductility, hardness and density).
Furthermore, the erosion properties of a ductile material are different from those of a brittle material.
For ductile materials, erosion increases up to the impact angle of about 30°, where the maximum is reached, and then decreases up to the 90° angle.
For brittle materials, erosion increases continuously up to the 90° impact angle, where the maximum is reached.